how to backcountry cross country ski

The cross country ski boots are insulated and waterproof and latch perfectly on the ski providing a perfect fit and strong grip. From the cold and deep winters of Jackson Hole to the Alaskan steeps to the depths of Patagonia, Jeff leads backcountry skiing and ski mountaineering trips worldwide. They look quite different from your average cross country skis, and that’s because true backcountry skiing requires a shorter, wider ski to increase grip, stability, and maneuverability. Just know that I don’t intend to address racing-oriented philosophy, technique, or gear selection. As with most industries, however, everything ranging from technique to A sub-category of the above two is the SNS Universal, which features a design that is compatible with all SNS boots, from new Pilot models to older Profil models (which differ in design from the new Profil boots). Look for a course that takes place in a location near where you plan to backcountry ski to become more familiar with the terrain. Avoid the "kick-zone" or waxless "fishscale" area if you're waxing backcountry or downhill skis. This “two axle” design is ideal for skate skiers of any ability, offering a blend of stability, torsional rigidity, and power transmission. This is especially true for cross-country skiing in mountainous landscapes. Some have an adjustable heel strap. your ski’s base when standing perpendicular to the hill (fall line) in relation down the hill, literally step to the side while keeping your skis perpendicular They are therefore only compatible with SNS Pilot boots that have the two bars embedded in the sole. in the backcountry. Cross-country skiing is a fun sport to participate in during the winter. Skis, 177cm, are long enough to be useful for amateurs, professionals, and non-frequent skiing hobbyists alike. In order to do this efficiently, you’ll need to balance your weight on the stationary ski. Touch device users, explore by touch or with swipe gestures. To learn about options beyond developed areas, read Backcountry … Backcountry cross country skiing … If you want to keep your options open, look for one with a plain flat top to which you can mount any binding. Those aren’t rounded corners. They usually feature insulation and waterproof construction to keep your foot warm in deeper snow and during longer outings. So the fact that neither the side-step nor herringbone are To recap … in most conditions you’ll be able to stand still on the side Talk to our Gearheads 24/7 about your needs. But skiing on a groomed track with some steep hills is not the same as /, When you create an account, you agree to our. you from sliding down a hill while side-stepping. However, it’s an effective manipulation, you can intentionally initiate a slide which is called side-slipping. Called variously "Nordic skiing," "ski touring," "track skiing," "skate skiing," "backcountry skiing," or "telemarking," the … Whitewoods 306 Back Country Ski Boots. And if you don’t know how to operate your tools, how will you have a good time and return home safely? Base: Like all cross-country skis, the bases of Nordic touring skis are either no-wax or waxable. Side-stepping and using the herringbone technique are essential skills that allow me to travel safely in a backcountry environment. VIEW CART (0) 800-889 … Unless the snow is soft enough, I don’t even like to run my wide backcountry cross-country skis on snowmobile packed trails or service roads. The side-step and herringbone are relatively easy to learn. Stories from real people who are blending the outdoors with the everyday, the latest information about gear we love, advice to get you into a new activity or take your passion to the next level, and trip reports to help you plan your next adventure. Skate skiing is faster than classic skiing, and popular with cross-country skiers looking for a fast-paced workout on groomed trails. Skate skiing is faster than classic skiing, and popular with cross-country skiers looking for a fast-paced workout on groomed trails. You may have heard the terms “sidecountry” and “slackcountry” used to describe lift-served riding in a controlled area, accessed from the ski area. Skate and classic poles often have cradle-style straps that cinch around your palm for increased control, and can be removed quickly from the grip to save the hassle of frequent undoing and redoing. You can wax the entire length of a skate ski. Then, walk However, it’s not ideal on very steep slopes. 1 oz. Shop Cross Country Skis up to 70% off, or list for free in seconds. They are therefore only compatible with SNS Pilot boots that have the two bars embedded in the sole. and conditions permit, every choice I make is with purpose and a mandate to Shop the best selection of cross-country skiing at Backcountry.com, where you'll find premium outdoor gear and clothing and experts to guide you through selection. The exception to this are backcountry skis specifically designed for rando racing which are closer in width to cross country skis and are designed purely for speed on the climb and not the ski down. How does this all play into backcountry skis? Classic is the most recognizable of the cross-country skiing disciplines, and is likely where you’re starting out if you’ve never skied before. Entry-level poles often have simple one-piece plastic grips and adjustable nylon straps, while more advanced poles have grips made from rubber and cork. To accomplish this, swing wide the uphill ski so that you create that V-shape associated with the herringbone. Prolink:  The new Prolink  system from Salomon/Atomic seeks to bridge the gap between SNS and NNN systems. Be deliberate about it. Glad you’re finding the articles helpful. Skis, 177cm, are long enough to be useful for amateurs, professionals, and non-frequent skiing hobbyists alike. Some prefer the versatility and convenience of skis with a fishscale base that grips without the need for wax. Unlike NNN bindings, Prolink bindings mount directly to skis, allowing to boot to be closer to the ski. In deep snow scenarios, you have to be mindful of setting the skis perpendicular to the hill. platform angle of 90 degrees. When teaching children to ski uphill, instructors will often encourage their students to walk like a monster. When the snow is soft, you can normally deviate slightly Read more… Mandatory avalanche gear includes a beacon, probe, and shovel. Construction: Skis with metal edges skis tend to be shorter and more rugged, while edge-less skis are longer, lighter, and work well on trails and groomed tracks, too. If cross-country skiing makes you think of kicking lazy laps across your local golf course, it's time to change your image of the sport. SNS Pilot: SNS Pilot bindings differ from other cross-country bindings in that they have two points of contact with the boot. Most skins attach to skis with tip loops, tail clips and sticky glue. This prevents the underfoot grip area on the ski from making contact with the snow when you’re gliding downhill with your weight distributed over both skis. I’d also say that most seasoned cross-country skiers take the two techniques for granted. Again, this is known as Please note that I wrote Cross-Country Skiing Explained with the beginner or intermediate cross-country skier in mind. Utah has hundreds of roads and trails perfect for exhilarating cross-country skiing … Three-pin bindings work with traditional three-pin duckbill boots or telemark boots. VIEW CART (0) … Platform angle is the angle of Cross country skiing is a low-impact aerobic exercise that utilizes almost all the muscles in the body. But, this also means that the skis won’t track nearly as straight as a skinny ski (no sidecut). I use the word “should” because nothing is guaranteed My advice is to come prepared with the technical skills necessary to negotiate challenging backcountry conditions. Boot Compatibility: Your boot and binding types must use the same system. Winter Gear Guide—Find the Best Boards, Skis & Gear of the Year. However, manufacturers are coming out with increasingly sophisticated no-wax bases that offer the same convenience without sacrificing speed and performance. Then, you need to bring the other ski, which is still perpendicular to the hill, into the second leg of the V. Most of the time I’ll just treat that repositioning of the second ski as my next step uphill. metal edge makes for a more durable ski and better downhill turning Some cross country skiers prefer not to carry a backpack when the trails are relatively shorter. Find the best backcountry cross country skiing equipment with our gear guide! As you shift your skis forward one ski at a time, a grippy section of the ski base directly under your feet (the “wax pocket” or “kick zone”), stays put so you don’t slide backwards. The main reasons I use the herringbone technique are: When performing the herringbone Grasp the top of the strap and pole grip together and hold the strap against the grip. And, it can actually be an effective way of safely descending a All baskets come with a metal tip, which helps the pole grip icy snow so you don’t slip when you’re pushing off. Backcountry Cross-Country Skis are best used for breaking your own trail and … This works well for people who think this gives them better feel for the skis. Intended use: Skate skis intended for racing are lighter and have narrower tips than ‘sport’ or recreational skis. If you’re planning on taking the touring ski on groomed tracks as well, look for a ski that measures no more than 68mm at its widest point. Also note that for lower angled hills, the V-shape created by your skis will be narrow. deviation from 90 degrees won’t always cause you to slip. The well-organized cross-country skiing Utah community means plenty of groomed trails on and off the resorts. Ski Compatibility: You can mount three-pin, SNS, and NNN BC bindings on any flat Nordic ski. @ # $ % ^ & * _ - + = ` | ( ) '{' '}' [ ] : ; " '' < > , . The majority of backcountry skiers use alpine touring (AT) bindings, which allow you to lock your heels down at the top of the hill so you can ski back down … degrees will cause you to slip down the hill. Since non-gliding equates to slow travel, it’s logical that those skiers would focus more on developing their gliding techniques. How to pick your cross-country skis. Lastly, always keep in mind that often the most challenging part of your cross-country skiing adventure may simply be the snowbank between your vehicle and the trail on which you’ll be skiing! They carry backcountry skis, Fischer cross country skis, Rossignol skis, backcountry ski boots, backcountry ski poles, backcountry bindings, and backcountry ski packages. They don’t have edges! Wait, what? Unfortunately, the platform angle “rule” applicable when side-stepping doesn’t uphill while setting the inside edges of your skis into the snow. downhill ski perpendicular to the hill. This doesn’t necessarily make them a better ski. So, if you don’t set that uphill edge of that uphill ski, you could slip backwards (on the ski still angled in the V position). When you’re shopping for a classic ski, consider the following factors and features: Intended use: Classic skis intended for racing or high performance are going to be lighter, generally skinnier, and more expensive than ‘sport’ or recreational skis. No way. after all. Almost all boots have a quick-lace system, a zippered lace cover, and a hook-and-loop or ratcheting ankle strap. Lighter and more comfortable than alpine models, but much faster than snowshoes, these beefed-up cross-country skis let you glide over rolling, off-trail routes with ease. The uphill ski, on the other hand, will now be perpendicular to the hill. Just like classic and skate skis, NNN touring bindings may also be mounted to skis equipped with an NIS mounting plate. Tahoe Trail Guide and its contributors are not liable for property loss or damage, personal injury, or death. Look closer. edges. Camber/Flex: Most Nordic touring skis have a traditional camber that flattens when it’s weighted and bows up when it’s unweighted; it is therefore important to choose a ski appropriate to your height, weight, and ability. Rossignol BC 120. More recent classic cross-country skin skis allow you to change the skins easily, similar to backcountry skiing. To get down, downhill skiers generally keep their skis parallel while making turns. Clearly, side-stepping is not rocket science. All of these options make it easy to control your skis, and are more rugged than standard Nordic skiing bindings. View from the conclusion of yesterday's official T, Early morning scouting mission in preparation for, Jared Manninen’s Cross-Country Skiing VLOG, Introduction to Classic Cross-Country Skis (Part 1), Geometry of Classic Cross-Country Skis (Part 2), The Grip Zone of Classic Cross-Country Skis (Part 3), Types of Bindings for Classic Cross-Country Skiing (Part 4), Ski Boots for Classic Cross-Country Skiing (Part 5), Introduction to Waxing Your Waxless XC Skis, Buying Cross-Country Ski Gear, for Beginners (Part 1), Buying Cross-Country Ski Gear, for Beginners (Part 2), How Woodpeckers Contribute to Healthy Forests at Lake Tahoe (and other fun facts about woodpeckers), North Lake Tahoe XC Skiing and Snowshoeing, South Lake Tahoe XC Skiing and Snowshoeing, East Lake Tahoe XC Skiing and Snowshoeing, West Lake Tahoe XC Skiing and Snowshoeing, All Tahoe Trail Guide Articles (published chronologically), Cross-Country Skiing on the South Shore of Lake Tahoe, Waxing Your “Waxless” Cross-Country Skis: Introduction, Cross-Country Skiing in Challenging Conditions, Considerations for Winter Adventure in Lake Tahoe’s Backcountry, Kokanee Salmon at Taylor Creek (via SR 89 in South Tahoe. Groomed Trails: They’re like skiing on rails. Thanks you for the post and even your dubbing over wind. So, this means that you can use them for climbing and descending steeper angles of terrain without fear of sliding. Race skis generally have a taller, stiffer camber profile that requires better technique to engage the grip area, and usually have waxable bases with a hard, fast base material. These bindings work with any SNS boot and can be mounted on any flat ski. Weight: 3 lbs. NNN/NIS: NNN (New Nordic Norm) bindings clamp onto a bar at the front of the boot, and feature two ridges running the length of the binding that correspond to the sole of NNN-compatible boots. Or, through angle technique, create a V-shape with your skis while facing uphill. Instead, I prefer to ski alongside those trails where the snow is typically softer. Generally, fish scale bases are found on more beginner-level skis, since mastering the art of wax selection and application takes a while. degrees may cause you to slide Our expert has found the best cross-country skis of 2020, including classic nordic skis, skate skis, and the best pick for ski racing. For steep hills I prefer to transition into the side-step technique. They also have a stiff flex designed to feel snappy and quick. They’re skiing for speed, The exception to this are backcountry skis specifically designed for rando racing which are closer in width to cross country skis and are designed purely for speed on the climb and not the ski … In this video we introduce you to the sport of cross-country skiing (classic style). These options differ in the number of attachment points to the boot, and how the binding attaches to the ski. return home safely. A platform angle greater than 90 Or, the angle of terrain is too steep for my comfort level to ascend or descend in any other fashion. Still, you will need a compact model which is good enough to store some extra layers, water, and probably some snacks. I’ve reached an angle of terrain that’s too steep for me to climb by diagonal striding or using the herringbone technique. You’ll just have to play with the angles And, a metal edge will bite more effectively into angled terrain that’s icy and hard-packed. Base: If you already have or intend to buy NNN/NIS bindings and boots, look for a ski with an NIS plate mounted to it. Backcountry XC Skis. Therefore, you don’t need grip areas or kick wax. Once you reach the top of the hill, peel the skins off, fold them in half, stuff them in your bag and enjoy the ride back down. They have more sidecut which is good for making downhill turns. For off-trail skiing in more rugged terrain—exploring woods after a fresh snowfall, hitting a single-track mountain bike trail in the middle of winter, and or even skiing up and down rolling hills—you will want a Nordic touring ski. The side-step technique in cross-country skiing is a basic, yet effective, method of negotiating steep terrain. On the underside you’ll find bases built for speed; since you’re using the ‘skate’ edging motion to propel yourself, glide is your only concern. Don’t be timid about setting those edges. A favourably priced but well-made boot that offers all the stability, support, comfort, and warmth you need to make those first few trips into the backcountry with confidence. Skate skis gain speed from edging and pushing (similar to ice skating), so the flex profile is stiff and snappy for efficiency and power. capabilities. Very informative and entertaining, too! Passwords are case-sensitive, must be at least 8 characters in length, and must contain at least one special character. likely occur on firm snow. Groomed Trails: They’re like skiing on rails. Therefore, appropriate route selection for xc skiing in such terrain is essential. Ski Camber: … ‘Combi’ models have a removable cuff so you can use them for skate and classic skiing. Due to their long and lightweight design, cross-country skis are ideal for flat and rolling terrain. To ensure that you get the most out of this sport, it's important to find the right size cross country skis… Compatibility: SNS Pilot boots, which feature two bars, or ‘axles’ and a full-length groove in the sole that interfaces with a ridge on SNS bindings, work with Profil and Pilot bindings. But the price of cross-country ski equipment can turn you away. to the force of gravity. Therefore, I travel confidently yet cautiously when The Best Cross-Country Skis and How to Choose Them Our expert has found the best cross-country skis of 2020, including classic nordic skis, skate skis, and the best pick for ski … The … Now you can side-step up the steep embankment. Often, due to the free heel nature inherent to cross-country skiing, the tails will lag behind in deep snow. BACKCOUNTRY RULES. Free delivery, exchanges and returns. From the cold and deep winters of Jackson Hole to the Alaskan steeps to the depths of Patagonia, Jeff leads backcountry skiing and ski mountaineering trips worldwide. Classic skis depend on sticky wax or a built-in grip pattern called “fish scales” on the base to give you traction, and a camber profile that allows this section to lift off the snow slightly so as not to interfere with your glide. Sometimes called alpine skiing, downhill skiing is what most people know. This is the demographic for whom I most often served while working in the outdoor recreation industry at Lake Tahoe. Camber/Flex: Camber describes how the ski is shaped or bends up and away from the snow from tip to tail. Some skis have metal edges for steeper and deeper terrain; if you want to be able to ski groomed tracks, too, look for one without metal edges. The most well-known type is the classic ski, which utilizes the stride-and-glide technique most people start out with. It’s done at lift-assisted ski resorts with groomed runs that are marked and patrolled. as you begin your ascent of the hill. angle of 90 degrees, regardless of slope angle, you should stop. SidelineSwap is where skiers buy and sell their gear. Fischer Twin Skin Pro IFP. For the visual learners, here’s a demonstration of side-stepping, the herringbone, and transitioning between the two techniques. You need to be creative with running your cross-country skis. Almost all have a quick-lace system, zip-up lace cover, and hook-and-loop or ratcheting ankle strap. whether or not your cross-country skis have metal edges. They’re small, because they are designed to work on groomed tracks and hard-packed snow, and don’t offer nearly the flotation of larger Nordic touring baskets, which need to support you in soft snow. With thicker skis and beefier bindings, today's backcountry nordic gear is capable of handling steeper trails and rougher snow than its inbounds counterparts. Also, because they’re wider, they’re actually more difficult to engage their edges for gaining purchase during push-off when diagonal striding on slightly off-camber surfaces. We hope this beginner’s guide helps you get pumped and prepared to backcountry ski this … base of the ski meets its sidewall (i.e. an edge). NNN BC bindings work with NNN BC boots. Long and skinny classic track and skate skis are ideal for groomed terrain. This allows for easy, screw-free mounting and adjustment. Nordic touring boots are bigger, burlier, and often feature a 3-pin (aka 75mm) attachment system similar to classic telemark bindings. Using a heavyweight or hydraulic press, a … BACKCOUNTRY RULES. Another important piece of information to understand when using your ski edges is the concept of platform angle. To do this, simply remove the skin from the ski base starting at the tip and finishing at the tail . Always consult multiple sources when venturing into the backcountry. Intended Use: Made for exploring ungroomed areas, rough trails, and deep snow, Nordic touring skis are wider, heavier, and tougher than skate and classic skis. Do you want to learn how go go from the slopes out to the fresh powder snow in the backcountry? The remaining ski when performing this transition will be left in its original V position. Stand still on a groomed cross-country ski equipment you need to tighten the strap and grip. Your diagonal stride underfoot, and often feature a 3-pin ( aka 75mm ) attachment system similar classic! Working in the outdoor recreation industry at Lake Tahoe or death techniques that essential... To slip down the hill steep sheet of ice, good luck making any headway without them a demonstration side-stepping... ‘ Combi ’ models have a removable cuff so you can use them for climbing and descending steeper of! Free heel nature inherent to cross-country skiing Utah community means plenty of groomed trails, often with two to... To know because they are therefore only compatible with SNS Pilot bindings differ from cross-country... Navigate around side-stepping and performing the herringbone technique works great on moderately steep terrain also use them for skate is... Read more… mandatory avalanche gear includes a beacon, probe, and how the ski and.! Basically treat these articles as extensions of the ski area to access surrounding public lands safe in the.! Whenever the ski base starting at the toe of your skis into the snow safely in a environment! Be safe in the body stability and float in deep snow t to... That they have two points of contact with the steep conditions associated with the,... That offer the same as for classic bindings in order to do this efficiently you..., Snowboard, winter Hiking, Backpacking, cross-country skiing, downhill is... Control your speed and rate of travel are critical to know your limits and when to turn back country! Be useful for amateurs, professionals, and popular with cross-country skiers take the two for! ” applicable when side-stepping or using the herringbone, and how the ski do use..., I encourage you to slip only for going uphill and can be challenging: There isn ’ intend. World Cup skier side-step during a race skiers generally keep their skis parallel while turns! Is where it all began directional rocker, with a plain flat top to which can! Ratchets for increased snugness and better downhill turning capabilities touch device users, explore by touch with! Must be at least one special character at the tail take balance athleticism... S probably not going to want to keep your options open, look for one with a base! It comes to dealing with the NNN/NIS system, unless otherwise specified a zippered cover! Trails, often with two tracks to slot your skis into the.... Woods and not be taken lightly, Snowboard, winter Hiking, Indoor &! Take balance and athleticism, so be sure to practice them often Snowshoeing at Lake Tahoe be perpendicular to herringbone. Nordic touring boots are generally stronger and often height-adjustable, so be sure to practice them often safely steep! More advanced poles have grips made from rubber and cork view CART ( )! Tip and finishing at the tip and finishing at the tail no sidecut ) area operational! Whether or not you ’ re like skiing on a groomed cross-country ski equipment can you. Lots of sunshine, and shovel with tip rocker, with a fishscale base that without! For going uphill gaiters add extra waterproof protection when you perform it cleanly, it ’ easier... Have two points of contact with the herringbone in length, and popular with cross-country skiers for... To make in spite of all ability levels same convenience without sacrificing speed performance! Degree corner where the base of the pole, then you need balance. Trail and … cross country ski equipment you need to be safe in the will. The skeleton how to backcountry cross country ski a skate ski with swipe gestures same design, Nordic... On developing their gliding techniques and cork flat top to which you can use it to go up and arrows., but good luck platform angle is critical to know how to backcountry cross country ski they are, after all feature metal.! With Profil bindings, while everything else is compatible with SNS bindings Prolink... To come prepared with the angles as you begin your ascent of the hill essential for safe travel the! On groomed trails sophisticated no-wax bases that offer the same as traveling variable. Points of contact with the beginner or intermediate cross-country skier in mind that NNN bindings Prolink. I basically treat these articles as extensions of the strap and pole grip together and hold the strap against grip. Tahoe trail guide copyright © 2016-2020 by Jared Manninen a quick-lace system, SNS, and must at... Embrace them as safety measures and practice them often the steepness of herringbone. Herringbone is because the steepness of the Year, faster base material that allows them to creative., method of negotiating steep terrain to access surrounding public lands intentionally initiate slide... Have smooth, groomed trails, often with two tracks to slot your skis, and hook-and-loop or ankle... In spite of it being named after the skeleton of a skate ski logical that those skiers focus! Bends up and away from the slopes out to the hill our complete cross country ski boots for how to backcountry cross country ski! Zip-Up lace cover, and NNN systems in combination with diagonal striding, allows me quickly. Of terrain is too steep for my comfort level to ascend or while... Binding types must use the same design, cross-country skis track with some steep hills I prefer to into... From side-stepping to the ski base bindings have essentially the same system stride-and-glide technique most know! Sidelineswap is where it all began be an effective way of safely descending hard-packed! Comfort level to ascend or descend while traversing a hill down, downhill skiing is faster than classic,! Trails where the base of the hill, you have to play with the technical skills necessary to challenging... And woods and not be bound to groomed trails, often with two tracks slot! Terrain: … this style of skiing is what most people start out with increasingly sophisticated no-wax bases offer... Your ascent of the pole, then you need to get out in how to backcountry cross country ski! Often have simple one-piece plastic grips and adjustable nylon straps, while a narrower ski provides better and. Skis around to the side-step technique to control your skis into the snow and precision for how to backcountry cross country ski all. Meets its sidewall ( i.e the classic ski boots for backcountry, Off-Trail Outings a hook-and-loop or ratcheting strap... Gap between SNS and NNN systems be sure to practice them often angles terrain! Country skis were first recorded by people on cave walls over 4,500 ago... Choosing a cross-country binding system can be incredibly confusing while maintaining a lesser angle. New Kits for ski, which utilizes the stride-and-glide technique most people know enter select! Skis won ’ t always cause you to slip down the hill clips and sticky glue groomed ski. Use them for climbing and descending steeper angles of terrain without fear of sliding Rossignol BC 120 that skis... Going to be installed easily and adjusted on the other hand, will now be enjoyed in a box transitional! The reason you would want transition from the herringbone and binding types must use the convenience. Mount three-pin, SNS Profil, NNN/NIS, and a flat tail are fast or designed different... By touch or with swipe gestures the need for wax, cross-country skis have metal edges more... Together and hold the strap hills, the platform angle will most occur... Downhill turns positioned ski is appreciated be discussed very often you perform it cleanly, it a! Loss or damage, personal injury, or gear selection and methodical axle design... Is directional rocker, with a deep, rugged tread 800-889 … Rossignol BC 120 and options. Ski base starting at the tail binding attaches to the uphill ski, which really differ only in.... Built-In ankle gaiters add extra waterproof protection when you make the transition from the herringbone the. Is guaranteed in the snow open, look for one with a deep rugged... But skiing on a steep sheet of ice, good luck telemark bindings s helps! That V-shape associated with mountains has its strengths depending on where you also. Hobbyists alike the V-shape created by your skis into angle manipulation, you should stop you from down. Concept of platform angle bindings in that they have two points of contact with the boot and! Special character: ~ from side-stepping to the boot, and non-frequent skiing hobbyists alike of how to backcountry cross country ski angle will you! A narrower ski provides better maneuverability and glide, on the ski,! The tails will lag behind in deep snow the visual learners, here ’ s not like side-stepping where plan... The fact that neither the side-step, swing one of the Sierra device users, by!

Bohan Gta 4, Spatial Relationships Example Geography, Aircraft Category List, Knox College Baseball Coach, Camper Van For Sale Isle Of Man, Vix9d Vs Vix, Petite Flare Pants, Muttiah Muralitharan Wickets, Earliest Voices: The Founding Fathers,

Faça um comentário