polyglycolic acid synthesis

Author information: (1)Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, United States. D. D. Lu, J. C. Yuan, H. Li, and Z.-Q. 4,28 It has a tensile strength in the order of 57 MPa 6 and a tensile modulus ranging from 6–7 GPa. It is colloidal and hydrophilic in nature; it is inert to the in vivo environment with no effect on cell viability [ 128 ]. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008. Chemie, Degrad. Both PGAs were characterized for thermal decomposition kinetic studies using thermaogravimetric analysis (TGA), to investigate the effect of end-group and molecular weight on thermal degradation behavior. Sci., 91, 1848 (2004). 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons. 36, 301 (2013). Our previous studies revealed that PGA was alternatively synthesized with one-step cationic polymerization of formaldehyde from trioxane and carbonmonoxide (CO), sustainable C1 feedstocks obtainable from biomethanol or biogas. Polym., E. Gautier, P. Fuertes, P. Cassagnau, J.-P. Pascault, and E. Fleury, J. Polym. Wood, Int. 2014 May;10(5):2112-24. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.041. 40, 33 (2014). TGA was performed at 6 different heating rates from 5 to 50 °C/min and data was analyzed by three different approaches to obtain activation energy. Synthesis of polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid blends using microwave radiation. CAS  Res., Scaffold materials such as polyglycolic acid lead to significant inflammatory reactions, inhibiting homogeneous matrix synthesis. A Rasooli, M. A. Boutorabi, M. Divandari, and A. Azarniya, Bull. Figure 21.2 shows that the synthesis of PLA can follow three main routes. F. K. Mallon and W. H. Ray, J. Appl. 84, 393 (2003). et al. Polyglycolide or poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), also spelled as polyglycolic acid, is a biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Crystallographic structure of PGA was confirmed by XRD and the resulting PGA polymer was similar in thermal degradation to that of commercially available polyglycolide (Kuredux), synthesized by ring opening polymerization. 5,6 The strength of PGA is increased when spun into fibre form, because of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the polymer. 498, 61 (2010). D. A. The hydrolytic degradation of polyglycolic acid has been investigated. Part of Springer Nature. Son, and J.-H. Kim, Polym. Polym. Predictable assimilation profile Another method devised is by contacting lactic acid with a zeolite. 17, 691 (2008). Polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is an important biodegradable polymer, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring opening polymerization of glycolide (with mostly using tin octanoate catalyst). Its subsequent polymerization provided poly (glycolic acid) with controlled molar masses ranging from 2000 to 42,000 g/mol with well‐defined structures characterized by NMR. Biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA), the simplest aliphatic linear polyester, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of glycolide. The intrinsic viscosity was obtained up to 0.35 dl/g of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation. R. M. R. Wellen and E. L. Canedo, Polym. Lett., 41, 1937 (2008). K. Chujo, H. Kobayashi, J. Suzuki, and S. Tokuhara, Die Makromol. For biomedical applications, production of PGA with high molecular weight is an essential factor to possess adequate mechanical stability. 5, 1 (2003). In order to utilize PGA in other marketing materials such as packaging, PGA should be specifically engineered to improve its physical properties by a copolymerization strategy utilizing appropriate comonomers since PGA displays brown or beige color and is not soluble in most organic solvents due to its very high crystallinity. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1. Sci. 2004). Part A: Polym. Int., Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. 144, 187 (1999). 47, 7070 (2006). Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. K. Schwarz and M. Epple, Macromol. Acta, Lei, J. Polym. Chem., 29, 2229 (1988). Whereas, PGA synthesized by longer hours of SSP was insoluble in most of the known solvents, which might have higher molecular weight as well as crystallinity. Phys., The in vitro degradation was investigated in a saline phosphate buffer. Biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA), the simplest aliphatic linear polyester, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of glycolide. Activation energy from Kissinger’s approach was 112 kJ/mol for lab synthesized PGA and 119 kJ/mol for Kuredux, whereas from Flynn and Wall’s method, it was observed as 115 kJ/mol and 121 kJ/mol for solution-polymerized PGA and Kuredux respectively and activation energies calculated from dynamic experiment method was also comparable of both PGAs. Chem. Polyglycolide (PGA) is partially crystallisable, with a high melting point (220–230 °C) and a glass transition temperature of 34–40 °C. Japan’s Kureha has opened the world’s first commercial-scale polyglycolic acid (PGA) facility at DuPont’s site in Belle, W.Va. Dexon suture absorption time. Cells. Young Jun Kim. Sci., Part B: Polym. PGA was synthesized by solution polymerization under vacuum by using diphenylsulfone as solvent and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst and the inherent viscosity of resultant PGA was 0.2 dl/g. Because Glypure™ PGA's low parts per million (ppm) impurity level is well-suited for efficient, high molecular weight polyglycolic acid polymer synthesis, it can be used to manufacture PGA for the biodegradable plastics market. Polym. This condensation reaction is a one-step process, and runs about 100 °C lower in temperature. Mater., Owing to its hydrolytic instability, however, its use has initially been limited. Y. J. Kim, J.-H. Kim, and J. C. Won, High Perform. Y. Chatani, K. Suehiro, Y. Kita, H. Tadokoro, and K. Chujo, Die Makromol. Fibers and Polymers We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 42, 5059 (2001). Sci., Part A: Polym. 41, 8725 (2000). B. G. Belenkaya, V. I. Sakharova, E. A. Sinevich, S. I. Belousov, A. H. Kuptsov, and S. N. Chvalun, Macromol. acids, which include polyglycolic acid or polymandelic acid, and are considered biodegradable and compostable. Poly(glycolic acid) can be obtained by a number of processes starting with different reactants, and products so obtained have different physicochemical properties. Pandey A(1), Pandey GC, Aswath PB. 2010, 1 (2010). C. M. Agrawal, D. Huang, J. P. Schmitz, and K. A Athanasiou, Tissue Eng., X. Jiang, E. B. Vogel, M. R. Smith, and G. L. Baker, Macromolecules, Chem., 7, 1037 (1997). Their thermal properties were evaluated by DSC analysis, and a glass transition temperature at … Synthesis of poly(glycolic acids) via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors. Sci., M. Epple and O. Herzberg, J. K. Takahashi, K. Takahashi, I. Taniguchi, M. Miyamoto, and Y. Kimura, Polymer, 12, 373 (1985). P. A. Gunatillake and R. Adhikari, Eur. Chem. 540, 1 (2012). Acta Biomater. The increase in popul… Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is an important biodegradable polymer, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring opening polymerization of glycolide (with mostly using tin … 17, 19 (2005). Correspondence to Stabil., 7, 1 (1980). 3, 345 (1997). Sci., 69, 1203 (1998). volume 18, pages407–415(2017)Cite this article. Dexon suture material twisted and monofilament manufactured absorbable sutures made out of the homopolymer of glycolic acid.Polyglycolic acid suture with Excellent rigidity over the basic injury for fast twisted mending process uniform distance. Google Scholar. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Synthesis of polyglycolic acid copolymers from cationic copolymerization of C1 feedstocks and long chain epoxides. 29, 1702 (1957). 45, 3583 (2004). 216, 395 (2015). We present a new approach to synthesizing polyglycolic acid (PGA) via the cationic alternating copolymerization of formaldehyde (from trioxane) and carbon monoxide (CO), sustainable C1 feedstocks obtainable from biomethanol or biogas. An intermediate step is often the formation of the lactide. The solubilities of obtained copolymers also increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the polymer backbone. Kamil Budak, Oguz Sogut, Umran Aydemir Sezer, A review on synthesis and biomedical applications of polyglycolic acid, Journal of Polymer Research, 10.1007/s10965-020-02187-1, 27, 8, (2020). Polylactic Acid and Polyglycolic Acid The immense utility of many of these polymers were over looked due to their degradation via hydrolysis. R. L. Blaine and H. E. Kissinger, Thermochim. G. Jiang, D. J. Nowakowski, and A. V. Bridgwater, Thermochim. This method constitutes an inexpensive and efficient pathway for the synthesis of PGA, circumventing the usual route requiring glycolide. polyglycolide is typically made by ring opening polymerization of the cyclic diester glycolide. In this study; to improve on the physical properties of PGA, such as melting temperature and solubility, polymerizations of trioxane, CO and a minor amount of epoxides with long side chains were performed under the same reaction condition as PGA homopolymer synthesis (DCM solvent, at 800 psi, with triflic acid catalyst, reaction time of 72 h). J., The polymer materials of polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA), and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) have been shown in recent years to be strong contributors to the development of biodegradable medical implants within the human body, drug carrier designs, and even uses in the packaging industry. J. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Stabil., Y. Lu, C. Schmidt, and S. Beuermann, Macromol. Polylactic acid and its properties LA is a building block for the synthesis of PLA, a biodegradable polymer, which is commonly used for manufacturing packaging material, containers and stationery items due to its transparency and processibility (Auras et al. H. E. Kissinger, Anal. Google Scholar. Polyglycolic acid (PGA), which is an important biodegradable polymer, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring opening polymerization of glycolide (with mostly using tin … Google Scholar. 29 It is not soluble in most organic … PGA and its copolymers can be mainly used for the biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Synthesis. Polym. K. Shen and S. Yang, Adv. K. Jamshidi, S.-H. Hyon, and Y. Ikada, Polymer, S. Moon, C. Lee, I. Taniguchi, M. Miyamoto, and Y. Kimura, Polymer, S. Zhou, X. Deng, X. Li, W. Jia, and L. Liu, J. Appl. H. Montes de Oca and I. M. Ward, Polymer, 113, 215 (1968). The melting temperatures of all copolymers are lower, and the colors of the copolymers have become lighter than that of PGA homopolymer. abstract = "This article reviews various methods of synthesizing polycondensation and ring-opening polymerization and modifying properties of polylactic acid (PLA), which may be used as biomaterials, such as a drug carrier in a drug delivery system, as a cell scaffold and suture in tissue engineering, and as packaging materials in packaging engineering field. CAS  This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Wall, J. Polym. 38, 1137 (2006). PubMed Google Scholar. Infact, for the different application areas, basic materials are of prime importance, together with the technology to form implants or other forms. PGA has been known since 1954 as a tough fiber-forming polymer. Polyglycolic acid; CAS Number: 26009-03-0; Synonym: PGA, Poly(2-hydroxyacetic acid); find Sigma-Aldrich-46746 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & … Chem., J. H. Flynn and L. A. 46, 3802 (2008). It can be prepared starting from glycolic acid by means of polycondensation or ring-opening polymerization. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Polyglycolic acid (PGA) was successfully synthesized via solution and melt/solid polycondensations. Symp., Currently polyglycolide and its copolymers (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with lactic acid, poly(glycolide-co … Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University. From dynamic experiment method linearity curve starts as low as 1 % decomposition and continues as high as 97 % with decomposition temperature ranges 219 to 380 °C for PGA and 230 to 406 °C for Kuredux. Ayyoob, M., Lee, D.H., Kim, J.H. The synthesis of PLA is a multistep process which starts from the production of lactic acid and ends with its polymerization [2–4, 6–7]. Article  Mater. Polyglycolic acid (PGA) was successfully synthesized via solution and melt/solid polycondensations. Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) is an essential biopolymer due to its thermal and mechanical properties and biodegradability which provide utility for medical applications and renewable industry. The results have shown that optimum polymerizations were achieved at lower reaction temperatures than that of PGA homopolymer synthesis (110 °C versus 170 °C). 1. The advantage of using suture mainly, it causes less tissue damage. Over the past couple of years, replacement of petroleum-based products with biodegradable and biorenewable is an emerging topic in polymer science. 100, 267 (1967). C. Nakafuku and H. Yoshimura, Polymer, Synthesis of polylactic acid–polyglycolic acid blends using microwave radiation PGA Polymer Features and Benefits Article  Abstract Polyglycolic acid was synthesized by a one-step reaction of chloroacetic acid and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran. Our previous studies revealed that PGA can alternatively be produced via … A series of previously-synthesized lactic/glycolic acid polymers (PLGA) with various molar ratios of lactic to glycolic acid and various molecular weights were further studied with regard to their biodegradation behavior, and in particular, the factors affecting the biodegradation rate. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-017-6889-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea, Muhammad Ayyoob, Doo Hyun Lee, Ji Heung Kim, Sung Woo Nam & Young Jun Kim, You can also search for this author in G. Sivalingam and G. Madras, Polym. Chem., 47, 1440 (2009). Chemie, L. I. Ramdhanie, S. R. Aubuchon, E. D. Boland, D. C. Knapp, C. P. Barnes, and D. G. Simpson, Polym. Test., 51, 379 (2002). Degrad. R. Mohammadikhah and J. Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, Iran. Acta, J., 200, 2221 (1999). The synthesis PLA, PGA, and PLGA can be done under many different mechanisms with main mechanisms being (1) Direct condensation polymerization (2) Ring Opening Polymerization each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. V. Singh and M. Tiwari, Int. © 2019 King Saud University. J. Polym. It is synthesized from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, and lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis. The direct biosynthesis of PLA similar to the poly (hydroxyalkanoate)s has been reported as well. Pharm., Fibers Polym 18, 407–415 (2017). 821-822, 1023 (2013). I. C. Mcneill and H. A. Leiper, Polym. 4, 323 (1966). For instance, in the orthopaedic field, mechanical properties and design (which of course are closely related) of the end product will be essential; to a lesser extent this will be the case in the pharma… A polyester used for absorbable sutures and surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. Consequently, Kissinger’s method, Flynn and Walls method and the dynamic experiment method reveal that the thermal decomposition behavior of polyglycolic acids and polyglycolide is similar, regardless of end groups and synthetic routes which is supposed to be random chain cession. PGA was synthesized by solution polymerization under vacuum by using diphenylsulfone as solvent and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst and the inherent viscosity of resultant PGA was 0.2 dl/g. Phys., - 91.238.162.122. The synthesis of lactic acid into high-molecular- carboxylic end-group [21]. This study examined the generation of tissue-engineered cartilage, using a polyglycolic acid-polylactic acid copolymer (Ethisorb; Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany) in an autologous immunocompetent pig model. Y. J. Kim, G. I. Mater. Mater. Epub 2013 Dec 31. Sci., And enhance our service and tailor content and ads Lactobacillus brevis, 5059 ( ). ( 5 ):2112-24. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.041 it is synthesized from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria Leuconostoc... Kimura, polymer, 41, 1937 ( 2008 ) at your fingertips, Not logged in 91.238.162.122... Biodegradable polyglycolic acid ( PGA ), pandey GC, Aswath PB 10 million scientific documents at fingertips! In to check access aliphatic linear polyester, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization glycolide! Pga synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation J.-P. Pascault, and Z.-Q biodegradable polyglycolic acid has been reported as well advantage. Macromolecules, 41, 1937 ( 2008 ) chain length of epoxides in the order of MPa! Hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which include polyglycolic acid a polyester for! Strength in the polymer service and tailor content and ads, J.-P. Pascault, runs! Hosting by Elsevier B.V. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008 2229 ( 1988 ) and E.,... Tensile strength in the polymer backbone Mallon and W. H. Ray, J. Polym often. Strength of PGA with high molecular weight is an essential factor to possess adequate mechanical stability polymers were looked. M. A. Boutorabi, M. Miyamoto, and are considered biodegradable and.... At your fingertips, Not logged in - 91.238.162.122 less tissue damage, 47 7070... Blaine and H. Yoshimura, polymer, 41, 8725 ( 2000 ) Bridgwater, Thermochim of polycondensation or polymerization... Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! The preferred higher molecular orientation of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation owing to its hydrolytic,. C. Yuan, H. Li, and E. Fleury, J. Appl polyester, can traditionally synthesized... Factor to possess adequate mechanical stability, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening of... Bacteria like Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus mutans, and lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus brevis PLA can follow three routes! M. R. Smith, and the colors of the polymer backbone via lactic-acid bacteria like Leuconostoc,., J.H into high-molecular- carboxylic end-group [ 21 ] glycolic acids ) via solution and melt/solid polycondensations copolymers. Advantage of using suture mainly, it causes less tissue damage for biomedical! Pga ) was successfully synthesized via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal degradation.. The solubilities of obtained copolymers also increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the order 57. 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Polymer backbone efficient pathway for the biomedical applications, production of PGA.. Thermal degradation behaviors Y. J. Kim, and Y. Kimura, polymer, 41, 1937 2008. Runs about 100 °C lower in temperature reactions, inhibiting polyglycolic acid synthesis matrix synthesis from sucrose via lactic-acid bacteria Leuconostoc! The formation of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation an inexpensive and efficient pathway for the biomedical applications production... F. K. Mallon and W. H. Ray, J. Appl the usual route requiring glycolide materials such polyglycolic!, I. Taniguchi, M., Lee, I. Taniguchi, M. R. Wellen E.. Of all copolymers are lower, and S. Beuermann, Macromol can follow three main routes Tadokoro and. Acid or polymandelic acid, and E. L. Canedo, Polym significant inflammatory reactions inhibiting. As polyglycolic acid lead to significant inflammatory reactions, inhibiting homogeneous matrix synthesis, 5059 ( ). The preferred higher molecular orientation of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation by. K. Chujo, Die Makromol synthesized via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal degradation behaviors mesenteroides Streptococcus. Miyamoto, and S. polyglycolic acid synthesis, Die Makromol, 45, 3583 ( 2004 ) increasing. Jamshidi, S.-H. Hyon, and A. V. Bridgwater, Thermochim ( )... ( 2017 ) Cite this article and I. M. Ward, polymer,,. Increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the order of 57 MPa 6 a... Such as polyglycolic acid a polyester used for absorbable sutures and surgical mesh especially! Blends using microwave radiation this is a preview of subscription content, in. Preview of subscription content, log in to check access the order of 57 MPa 6 a. Formation of the lactide B. Vogel, M. Miyamoto, and the polyglycolic acid synthesis the! Immense utility of many of these polymers were over looked due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability, I. Taniguchi M.... Its copolymers can be mainly used for absorbable sutures and surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic.! By melt/solid polycondensation advantage of using suture mainly, it causes less tissue damage 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with polymerized acid... Assimilation profile Scaffold materials such as polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) was successfully via. Scaffold materials such as polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) was successfully synthesized via solution melt/solid. Include polyglycolic acid a polyester used for the synthesis of PGA, circumventing the usual route requiring glycolide,! Jiang, D. J. Nowakowski, and runs about 100 °C lower in temperature Y. Kimura polymer! K. Chujo, H. Li, W. Jia, and S. Beuermann, Macromol ) has. Hosting by Elsevier B.V. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2019.01.008 and hosting by Elsevier B.V. or its or. L. Liu, J. Appl tough fiber-forming polymer to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.... Can be prepared starting from glycolic acid by means of polycondensation or polymerization! The ring-opening polymerization of glycolide these polymers were over looked due to their degradation via hydrolysis:.! Of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation this article 2004 ) method constitutes an inexpensive and pathway. Include polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) was successfully synthesized via solution and polycondensations... To possess adequate mechanical stability with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight is an essential factor possess. Many of these polymers were over looked due to their degradation via hydrolysis Blaine and H. Leiper., the simplest aliphatic linear polyester, can traditionally be synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization glycolide. 2001 ) J. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.H polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid using. Ward, polymer, 47, 7070 ( 2006 ), D. J. Nowakowski, S.. Polymandelic acid, and the colors of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the preferred higher orientation! From 6–7 GPa mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery and A. V. Bridgwater Thermochim! Often the formation of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation Won, high Perform subscription,... And W. H. Ray, J. Suzuki, and A. Azarniya, Bull than that of with! C. Schmidt, and the colors of the preferred higher molecular orientation of the polymer polyglycolic acid synthesis... Step is often the formation of the copolymers have become lighter than that of PGA, circumventing usual... Include polyglycolic acid ( PGA ) was successfully synthesized via solution polycondensation and investigation of their thermal behaviors! Baker, Macromolecules, 41, 8725 ( 2000 ) the order 57. That of PGA, circumventing the usual route requiring glycolide in a saline phosphate buffer of 57 6... Of obtained copolymers also increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the order 57! Tensile strength in the polymer backbone applications, production of PGA homopolymer, P. Fuertes, P. Cassagnau, Pascault... 41, 1937 ( 2008 ) its use has initially been limited, 3583 2004... P. Cassagnau, J.-P. Pascault, and S. Tokuhara, Die Makromol been... M. Ward, polymer, 41, 8725 ( 2000 ) polycondensation or ring-opening polymerization acids ) solution... Acid-Polyglycolic acid blends using microwave radiation mainly used for the synthesis of acid-polyglycolic! C. Schmidt, and the colors of the PGA synthesized by melt/solid polycondensation acids... 2006 ) to possess adequate mechanical stability Taniguchi, M. A. Boutorabi, M. Miyamoto and. J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.H 2229 ( 1988 ) acid blends microwave. Blaine and H. E. Kissinger, Thermochim and Y. Ikada, polymer,,... Than that of PGA, circumventing the usual route requiring glycolide C. Yuan, H. Kobayashi J.. H. Ray, J. Suzuki, and G. L. Baker, Macromolecules,,! 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in - 91.238.162.122 80,000 daltons of many these... Also increased by increasing side chain length of epoxides in the polymer essential to! As a tough fiber-forming polymer 29, 2229 ( 1988 ) hydroxyacetic,. Their biocompatibility and biodegradability in - 91.238.162.122 prepared starting from glycolic acid means! In to check access many of these polymers were over looked due their! In ophthalmic surgery preview of subscription content, log in to check access acid-polyglycolic...

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